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How to Identify Colored Gems

Colored gemstones can appear as similar stones of different colors, but the chemical properties of these gems give them each their unique characteristics. Therefore, identifying a colored gemstone is not just about matching the color with a name, but also about determining whether a colored gemstone is natural or man-made. Synthetic gemstones are made to resemble real gemstones, but the chemical properties of synthetic and real gemstones are inherently different. With the proper equipment such as refractometer and knowledge of gemstones, you can differentiate between natural and synthetic gems.

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How to Correct Marine Aquarium Salinity

In a marine aquarium, salinity refers to the amount of dissolved salts in parts per thousand (ppt). Specific gravity also measures salinity and expresses the density of the aquarium water compared to the density of water. The specific gravity of water is 1 and anything heavier than water has a specific gravity that is above 1. The ocean has a salinity of between 34 to 37 ppt. At 35 ppt, seawater has a specific gravity of 1.026. Aim to maintain a specific gravity of between 1.020 to 1.026 in your marine aquarium. Salinity refractomter is the useful tool.

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How to Test Ethylene & Propylene Glycol

Ethylene glycol and propylene glycol are the major constituents of antifreeze. Operating an automobile without proper antifreeze can cause permanent damage, so testing ethylene and propylene glycol is an important component of proper vehicle maintenance. Fortunately, there are a number of reliable methods  available to evaluate antifreeze quality, such as using a antifreeze refractometer or glycol refractometer .

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How to Calculate Degrees of Brix

 

Degrees Brix measures the sugar content in a solution such as fruit juice or syrup. In wine making calculating the amount of sugar present in the grape juice allows you to estimate the alcohol content of the finished product. One degree Brix equals one gram of sugar per 100 grams of solution, or 1 percent sugar. You can purchase a brix refractometer or sugar refractometer that gives readings in degrees Brix. The brix refractometer measures how much light refract as it passes through a substance. Light bends more in a substance with higher sugar content.

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Refractometer Gem Identification

Each type of gem has its own refraction index, a measurement calculated with a refractometer. The instrument can help you identify what kind of gem or stone you have.

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How to Make a Refractometer for Kids

A refractometer measures the angle of light as it hits the surface of a reflective surface, for example, that of a gemstone. Make a refractometer that a child can use to differentiate one type of gemstone from another. Supplies from around the home will be supplemented with supplies from an electronics store. Inexpensive gemstones, including artificial ones, can be acquired from a hobby store or a crafts supply house.

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How to Test Salt Water Pools

Saltwater pools are favorites as they do not require harsh chemicals to help keep the water disinfected; they simply use salt. When using a salt water pool, you must keep the salt level at a minimum of around 3500 parts per million with salinity refractometer or other tools,  according to our suggestions. To ensure that a salt water pool stays at the appropriate salt level, it is important to test the water. Most salt water pools have their own salt level readout; however, these readouts can sometimes fail, and thus it is important to have one or two backup methods available.

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Experiment Ideas for Science Projects Dealing With Foods

Experiment ideas for science projects dealing with foods can cover numerous avenues of inquiry, ranging from why certain baking ingredients combine better than others to why foods spoil. The average kitchen can serve as a laboratory for chemistry and biology experiments. You can test a simple process with a brix refractometer or sugar refractometer or other tools , such as the growth of sugar crystals, or a more complex process, such as the ripening of fruit.

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Water Salinity Testing

Water salinity testing is used to determine the concentration of salts dissolved in a water sample. Salinity is measured for maintenance of saltwater aquariums, to determine the suitability of water for drinking and for ecological monitoring of aquatic habitats. Salt concentration can be directly measured by evaporating a water sample and measuring the dried salts left behind (total dissolved solids, or TDS). More practical methods such as salinity refractometer Method for estimating water salinity have been developed based on the relationships between the concentration of salt ions and electrical conductivity, density and refractive index.

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How to Reduce Moisture Content in Honey

Bee keepers are in the habit of keeping a watch on their hives and testing the honey that is extracted for moisture. Anything above 18 percent is considered excessive. It could result in the honey fermenting and spoiling. Honey that is ready to be extracted will need to have the moisture removed. You can do this with brix refractometer or bee refractometer in a few ways.

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