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How to Cycle a 24 Gallon Salt Water Tank

The nitrogen cycle is the life support system of an aquarium. The cycle is a chain of chemicals and bacteria that are responsible for keeping the aquarium free of organic waste. Without an effective cycle, the tank becomes a toxic soup of chemicals that will harm or kill the inhabitants. To get a new aquarium ready for fish, it is essential to biologically mature the filter by encouraging the growth of highly specialized bacteria in the filter system. This process is vital for the safety and welfare of all aquatic animals.The salinity refractometer , aquarium refractometer or seawater refractometer is a important tool.


How to Calculate Hydration Levels

Knowing your body's hydration level is important for maintaining a normal level of water. Water makes up for 60 percent of body weight and the body uses it to monitor temperature, protect organs and joints, transport oxygen to cells and eliminate waste. If body fluid is lost and not replaced quickly, dehydration occurs. You lose water through perspiration, urination and respiration. Calculating body hydration can ensure you are maintaining a healthy water intake amount. There are three common methods  such as refractometer, Sweat Patches, Urine Color Chart to measure body hydration levels.


How to Test for Antifreeze in My Fire Sprinkler System

Most commercial and large residential buildings have fire sprinkler systems to protect residents in case of a fire. To prevent water from freezing in the fire sprinkler lines, antifreeze liquid is added. The antifreeze lowers the freezing point of water so the sprinkler system can operate normally during winter. The type of antifreeze or amount varies by local building ordinances. You can test a fire sprinkler system using a device called a antifreeze refractometer, which is a small field testing device that lets you test various liquids to find out their composition and freezing temperature.


How to Make a Pinhole Refractometer

Distinguishing an aquamarine gem from a blue topaz or a synthetic blue spinel is not easy. The trouble is aquamarine is by far the most valuable gem. So if you can't distinguish it from inferior stones, you could be in for an expensive and disappointing mistake. The same problem arises with other precious stones. Gemologists have a selection of tools to help them identify the type of stone they are examining, which you can also learn to use. Among them is the refractometer. Refractometers test a stone's ability to bend light by measuring the angle created by a ray of light's path before and after it passes through a gem. Every stone has a unique refractive index, so if you can measure the refraction index, you can identify the stone.


How to Identify Colored Gems

Colored gemstones can appear as similar stones of different colors, but the chemical properties of these gems give them each their unique characteristics. Therefore, identifying a colored gemstone is not just about matching the color with a name, but also about determining whether a colored gemstone is natural or man-made. Synthetic gemstones are made to resemble real gemstones, but the chemical properties of synthetic and real gemstones are inherently different. With the proper equipment such as refractometer and knowledge of gemstones, you can differentiate between natural and synthetic gems.


How to Correct Marine Aquarium Salinity

In a marine aquarium, salinity refers to the amount of dissolved salts in parts per thousand (ppt). Specific gravity also measures salinity and expresses the density of the aquarium water compared to the density of water. The specific gravity of water is 1 and anything heavier than water has a specific gravity that is above 1. The ocean has a salinity of between 34 to 37 ppt. At 35 ppt, seawater has a specific gravity of 1.026. Aim to maintain a specific gravity of between 1.020 to 1.026 in your marine aquarium. Salinity refractomter is the useful tool.


How to Test Ethylene & Propylene Glycol

Ethylene glycol and propylene glycol are the major constituents of antifreeze. Operating an automobile without proper antifreeze can cause permanent damage, so testing ethylene and propylene glycol is an important component of proper vehicle maintenance. Fortunately, there are a number of reliable methods  available to evaluate antifreeze quality, such as using a antifreeze refractometer or glycol refractometer .


How to Calculate Degrees of Brix


Degrees Brix measures the sugar content in a solution such as fruit juice or syrup. In wine making calculating the amount of sugar present in the grape juice allows you to estimate the alcohol content of the finished product. One degree Brix equals one gram of sugar per 100 grams of solution, or 1 percent sugar. You can purchase a brix refractometer or sugar refractometer that gives readings in degrees Brix. The brix refractometer measures how much light refract as it passes through a substance. Light bends more in a substance with higher sugar content.


Refractometer Gem Identification

Each type of gem has its own refraction index, a measurement calculated with a refractometer. The instrument can help you identify what kind of gem or stone you have.


How to Make a Refractometer for Kids

A refractometer measures the angle of light as it hits the surface of a reflective surface, for example, that of a gemstone. Make a refractometer that a child can use to differentiate one type of gemstone from another. Supplies from around the home will be supplemented with supplies from an electronics store. Inexpensive gemstones, including artificial ones, can be acquired from a hobby store or a crafts supply house.


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